Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
(2) Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”). In the opinion of management, these consolidated financial statements include all adjustments (consisting of normal and recurring accruals) considered necessary to present fairly the Company’s financial position as of December 31, 2019 and 2020, and the results of the Company’s operations and its cash flows for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2019 and 2020. The Company has no items of other comprehensive income (loss); therefore, net income (loss) is equal to comprehensive income (loss).
Certain costs of doing business incurred and charged to the Company by Antero Resources have been reflected in the accompanying consolidated financial statements. These costs include general and administrative expenses provided to the Company by Antero Resources in exchange for:
● business services, such as payroll, accounts payable and facilities management;
● corporate services, such as finance and accounting, legal, human resources, investor relations and public and regulatory policy; and
● employee compensation, including equity-based compensation.
Transactions between the Company and Antero Resources have been identified in the consolidated financial statements (see Note 6—Transactions with Affiliates).
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include (i) for the period prior to March 13, 2019, the accounts of AMGP and its consolidated subsidiaries, which did not include Antero Midstream Partners and its subsidiaries, and (ii) for the period beginning on March 13, 2019, the accounts of Antero Midstream Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries, including Antero Midstream Partners and its subsidiaries, which were acquired in the Transactions. See Note 3—Business Combination. All significant intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
Prior to the Transactions on March 12, 2019, AMGP had determined that Antero Midstream Partners was a variable interest entity (“VIE”) for which AMGP was not the primary beneficiary and therefore did not consolidate. AMGP concluded that Antero Resources was the primary beneficiary of Antero Midstream Partners and Antero Resources consolidated its financial results. Antero Resources was the primary beneficiary based on its power to direct the activities that most significantly impacted Antero Midstream Partners’ economic performance and its obligations to absorb losses or receive benefits of Antero Midstream Partners that would be significant to Antero Midstream Partners. Antero Resources owned approximately 53% of the outstanding limited partner interests in Antero Midstream Partners prior to the Transactions and its officers and management group also acted as management of Antero Midstream Partners. AMGP did not own any limited partnership interests in Antero Midstream Partners and had no capital interests in Antero Midstream Partners. AMGP did not provide financial support to Antero Midstream Partners.
AMGP’s ownership of the non-economic general partner interest in Antero Midstream Partners prior to the Transactions provided AMGP with significant influence over Antero Midstream Partners, but not control over the decisions that most significantly impacted the economic performance of Antero Midstream Partners. AMGP’s indirect ownership of the IDRs of Antero Midstream Partners prior to the Transactions entitled AMGP to receive cash distributions from Antero Midstream Partners when distributions exceeded certain target amounts. AMGP’s ownership of these interests prior to the Transactions did not require AMGP to provide financial support to Antero Midstream Partners. AMGP obtained these interests upon its formation for no consideration. Therefore, AMGP had no cost basis and classified its investment in Antero Midstream Partners as a long term investment. Prior to the Transactions, AMGP’s share of Antero Midstream Partner’s earnings were a result of AMGP’s ownership of the IDRs was accounted for using the equity method of accounting. AMGP recognized distributions earned from Antero Midstream Partners as “Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates” on its statement of operations in the period in which they were earned and were allocated to AMGP’s capital account. AMGP’s long-term interest in the IDRs on the balance sheet was recorded in “Investment in unconsolidated affiliates.” The ownership of the general partner interests and IDRs did not provide AMGP with any claim to the assets of Antero Midstream Partners other than the balance in its Antero Midstream Partners capital account. Income related to the IDRs was recognized as earned and increased AMGP’s capital account and equity investment. When these distributions were paid to AMGP, they reduced its capital account and its equity investment in Antero Midstream Partners.
Investments in entities for which the Company exercises significant influence, but not control, are accounted for under the equity method. The Company’s judgment regarding the level of influence over its equity investments includes considering key factors such as Antero Midstream’s ownership interest, representation on the board of directors and participation in the policy-making decisions of equity method investees. Such investments are included in Investments in unconsolidated affiliates on the Company’s consolidated balance sheets. Income from investees that are accounted for under the equity method is included in Equity in earnings of unconsolidated affiliates on the Company’s consolidated statements of operations and cash flows. When the Company records its proportionate share of net income, it increases equity income in the statements of operations and comprehensive income (loss) and the
carrying value of that investment on the Company’s balance sheet. When a distribution is received, it is recorded as a reduction to the carrying value of that investment on the balance sheet.
The Company accounts for distributions received from equity method investees under the “nature of the distribution” approach. Under this approach, distributions received from equity method investees are classified on the basis of the nature of the activity or activities of the investee that generated the distribution as either a return on investment (classified as cash inflows from operating activities) or a return of investment (classified as cash inflows from investing activities).
The Company, through Antero Midstream Partners and its affiliates, provides gathering, compression and water handling services under fee-based contracts primarily based on throughput or at cost plus a margin. Certain of these contracts contain operating leases of the Company’s assets under GAAP. Under these arrangements, the Company receives fees for gathering, compression and water handling services. The revenue the Company earns from these arrangements is directly related to (i) in the case of natural gas gathering and compression, the volumes of metered natural gas that it gathers, compresses and delivers to natural gas compression sites or other transmission delivery points, (ii) in the case of fresh water services, the quantities of fresh water delivered to its customers for use in their well completion operations, (iii) in the case of wastewater treatment services performed by the Company prior to idling of the Clearwater Facility (as defined below) in September 2019, the quantities of wastewater treated for its customers, (iv) in the case of wastewater services provided by third parties, the third-party costs the Company incurs plus 3% or (v) in the case of flowback and produced water treatment performed by the Company, a cost of service fee based on the costs incurred by the Company. The Company recognizes revenue when it satisfies a performance obligation by delivering a service to a customer or the use of leased assets to a customer. The Company includes lease revenue within revenues by service. See Note 7—Revenue.
The preparation of the consolidated financial statements and notes in conformity with GAAP requires that management formulate estimates and assumptions that affect revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities and the disclosure of contingent liabilities. Items subject to estimates and assumptions include the useful lives of property and equipment, the valuation of assets and liabilities acquired from Antero Midstream Partners, as well as the valuation of accrued liabilities, among others. Although management believes these estimates are reasonable, actual results could differ from these estimates.
The Company considers all liquid investments purchased with an initial maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents. The carrying value of cash and cash equivalents approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Property and equipment primarily consists of gathering pipelines, compressor stations and the wastewater treatment facility and related landfill (collectively, the “Clearwater Facility”) previously used for the disposal of salt therefrom, other flowback and produced water treatment facilities; and water handling pipelines and facilities stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation, amortization and impairment. The Company capitalizes construction-related direct labor and material costs. Maintenance and repair costs are expensed as incurred.
Depreciation of property and equipment is computed using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives and salvage values of assets. The depreciation of fixed assets recorded under operating lease agreements is included in depreciation expense. Uncertainties that may impact these estimates of useful lives include, among others, changes in laws and regulations relating to environmental matters, including air and water quality, restoration and abandonment requirements, economic conditions and supply and demand for the Company’s services in the areas in which it operates. When assets are placed into service, management makes estimates with respect to useful lives and salvage values that management believes are reasonable.
Amortization of landfill airspace consists of the amortization of landfill capital costs, including those that have been incurred and capitalized and estimated future costs for landfill development and construction, and the amortization of asset retirement costs arising from landfill final capping, closure and post-closure obligations. Amortization expense is recorded on a units-of-consumption
basis, applying cost as a rate per-cubic yard. The rate per-cubic yard is calculated by dividing each component of the amortizable basis of the landfill by the number of cubic yards needed to fill the corresponding asset’s airspace. Landfill capital costs and closure and post-closure asset retirement costs are generally incurred to support the operation of the landfill over its entire operating life and are, therefore, amortized on a per-cubic yard basis using a landfill’s total airspace capacity. Estimates of disposal capacity and future development costs are created using input from independent engineers and internal technical teams and are reviewed at least annually.
The Company evaluates its long-lived assets for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the related carrying values of the assets may not be recoverable. Generally, the basis for making such assessments is undiscounted future cash flow projections for the assets being assessed. If the carrying values of the assets are deemed not recoverable, the carrying values are reduced to the estimated fair values, which are based on discounted future cash flows using assumptions as to revenues, costs and discount rates typical of third-party market participants, which is a Level 3 fair value measurement. The Company recognized an impairment with respect to the Clearwater Facility during the year ended December 31, 2019. See Note 4—Clearwater Facility Idling. The Company recognized a $90 million impairment with respect to the freshwater delivery system during the year ended December 31, 2020.
The Company’s asset retirement obligations include its obligation to close, maintain and monitor landfill cells and support facilities. After the landfill is certified closed, the Company must continue to maintain and monitor the landfill for a post-closure period, which generally extends for 30 years. The Company records the fair value of its landfill retirement obligations as a liability in the period in which the regulatory obligation to retire a specific asset is triggered. For the Company’s individual landfill cells, the required closure and post-closure obligations under the terms of its permits and its intended operation of the landfill cell are triggered and recorded when the cell is placed into service and salt is initially disposed in the landfill cell. The fair value is based on the total estimated costs to close the landfill cell and perform post-closure activities once the landfill cell has reached capacity and is no longer accepting salt. Retirement obligations are increased each year to reflect the passage of time by accreting the balance at the weighted average credit-adjusted risk-free rate that is used to calculate the recorded liability, with accretion charged to direct costs. Actual cash expenditures to perform closure and post-closure activities reduce the retirement obligation liabilities as incurred. After initial measurement, asset retirement obligations are adjusted at the end of each period to reflect changes, if any, in the estimated future cash flows underlying the obligation. Landfill retirement assets are capitalized as the related retirement obligations are incurred, and are amortized on a units-of-consumption basis as the disposal capacity is consumed.
Asset retirement obligations are recorded for fresh water impoundments and waste water pits when an abandonment date is identified. The Company records the fair value of its freshwater impoundment and waste water pit retirement obligations as liabilities in the period in which the regulatory obligation to retire a specific asset is triggered. The fair value is based on the total reclamation costs of the assets. Retirement obligations are increased each year to reflect the passage of time by accreting the balance at the weighted average credit-adjusted risk-free rate that is used to calculate the recorded liability, with accretion charged to direct costs. Actual cash expenditures to perform remediation activities reduce the retirement obligation liabilities as incurred. After initial measurement, asset retirement obligations are adjusted at the end of each period to reflect changes, if any, in the estimated future cash flows underlying the obligation. Fresh water impoundments and wastewater pit retirement assets are capitalized as the related retirement obligations are incurred, and are amortized on a straight-line basis until reclamation. As of December 31, 2020, the Company has $5 million of asset retirement obligations it expects to settle within the next 12 months that are recorded in Other current liabilities on the consolidated balance sheet.
The Company is under no legal obligations, neither contractually nor under the doctrine of promissory estoppel, to restore or dismantle its gathering pipelines, compressor stations, water delivery pipelines, flowback and produced water facilities and the Clearwater Facility upon abandonment. See Note 4—Clearwater Facility Idling.
A liability is recorded for a loss contingency when its occurrence is probable and damages can be reasonably estimated based on the anticipated most likely outcome or the minimum amount within a range of possible outcomes. The Company regularly reviews contingencies to determine the adequacy of our accruals and related disclosures. The ultimate amount of losses, if any, may differ from these estimates.
The Company accrues losses associated with environmental obligations when such losses are probable and can be reasonably estimated. Accruals for estimated environmental losses are recognized no later than at the time a remediation feasibility study or an evaluation of response options, is complete. These accruals are adjusted as additional information becomes available or as circumstances change. Future environmental expenditures are not discounted to their present value. Recoveries of environmental costs from other parties are recorded separately as assets at their undiscounted value when receipt of such recoveries is probable.
As of December 31, 2019 and 2020, the Company had not recorded any liabilities for litigation, environmental or other contingencies.
The Company’s consolidated financial statements include equity-based compensation costs related to awards granted by its own plans, as in place before and after the Transactions, as well as costs allocated by Antero Resources for grants made prior to the Transactions. Costs allocated from Antero Resources are offset to additional paid in capital on the consolidated balance sheet. See Note 6—Transactions with Affiliates for additional information regarding Antero Resources’ allocation of expenses to the Company. For awards granted under its own plan, the Company recognizes compensation cost related to all equity-based awards in the financial statements based on the estimated grant date fair value. The Company is authorized to grant various types of equity-based compensation awards, including stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit (“RSU”) awards, dividend equivalent awards and other types of awards. The grant date fair values of such awards are determined based on the type of award and may utilize market prices on the date of grant, Black-Scholes option-pricing model, Monte Carlo simulations or other acceptable valuation methodologies, as appropriate for the type of equity-based award. Compensation cost is recognized ratably over the applicable vesting or service period. Forfeitures are accounted for as they occur by reversing the expense previously recognized for awards that were forfeited during the period. See Note 12—Equity-Based Compensation.
The Company recognizes deferred tax assets and liabilities for temporary differences resulting from net operating loss and charitable contribution carryforwards and the differences between the financial statement and tax basis of assets and liabilities. The effect of changes in tax laws or tax rates is recognized in income during the period such changes are enacted. Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion, or all, of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. The Company regularly reviews its tax positions in each significant taxing jurisdiction during the process of evaluating its tax provision. The Company makes adjustments to its tax provision when: (i) facts and circumstances regarding a tax position change, causing a change in management’s judgment regarding that tax position; and/or (ii) a tax position is effectively settled with a tax authority at a differing amount.
In March 2020, the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (“CARES Act”) was enacted. The CARES Act allows corporations with net operating losses (“NOLs”) incurred in 2018, 2019 and 2020 to carry back such NOLs to each of the five years preceding the year of the NOLs, beginning with the earliest year in which there was taxable income, and claim an income tax refund in the applicable carryback years. As a result of this NOLs carryback provision in the CARES Act, the Company was able to recognize an income tax refund receivable in March 2020 of $55 million, including $11 million in income tax benefit for the current year and $44 million of previously recognized deferred income tax benefit. As of December 31, 2020, the Company had received $39 million of this refund.
The Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) ASC Topic 820, Fair Value Measurements and Disclosures, clarifies the definition of fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about fair value measurements. This guidance also relates to all nonfinancial assets and liabilities that are not recognized or disclosed on a recurring basis (e.g., the initial recognition of asset retirement obligations and impairments of long-lived assets). The fair value is the price that the Company estimates would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date. A fair value hierarchy is used to prioritize inputs to valuation techniques used to estimate fair value. An asset or liability subject to the fair value requirements is categorized within the hierarchy based on the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. The Company’s assessment of the significance of a particular input to the fair value measurement in its entirety requires judgment and considers factors specific to the asset or liability. The highest priority (Level 1) is given to unadjusted quoted market prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities, and the lowest priority (Level 3) is given
to unobservable inputs. Level 2 inputs are data, other than quoted prices included within Level 1, that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.
The carrying values on the consolidated balance sheet of the Company’s cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable—Antero Resources, accounts receivable—third party, other current assets, accounts payable—Antero Resources, accounts payable—third party, accrued liabilities and, other current liabilities approximate fair values due to their short-term maturities. The assets and liabilities of Antero Midstream Partners were recorded at fair value as of the acquisition date, March 12, 2019 (see Note 3—Business Combination). Additionally, the Company uses certain valuation techniques in performing its annual goodwill impairment test described below and in determining the fair value of property and equipment, both of which were subject to impairment write downs during the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2020.
The Company uses the equity method to account for its investments in companies if the investment provides the Company with the ability to exercise significant influence over, but not control of, the operating and financial policies of the investee. The Company’s consolidated net income includes the Company’s proportionate share of the net income or loss of such companies. The Company’s judgment regarding the level of influence over each equity method investee includes considering key factors such as the Company’s ownership interest, representation on the board of directors and participation in policy-making decisions of the investee and material intercompany transactions. See Note 16—Investments in Unconsolidated Affiliates.
The Company recognizes and measures the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination based on their estimated fair values at the acquisition date, with any remaining difference recorded as goodwill. For acquisitions, management engages an independent valuation specialist, as applicable, to assist with the determination of fair value of the assets acquired, liabilities assumed and goodwill, based on recognized business valuation methodologies. If the initial accounting for the business combination is incomplete by the end of the reporting period in which the acquisition occurs, an estimate will be recorded. Subsequent to the acquisition, and not later than one year from the acquisition date, the Company will record any material adjustments to the initial estimate based on new information obtained that would have existed as of the acquisition date. An adjustment that arises from information obtained that did not exist as of the date of the acquisition will be recorded in the period of the adjustment. Acquisition-related costs are expensed as incurred in connection with each business combination. See Note 3—Business Combination.
Goodwill represents the excess of the purchase price over the estimated fair value of the net assets acquired in the acquisition of a business. Goodwill is not amortized, but rather is tested for impairment annually in the fourth quarter and when events or changes in circumstances indicate that the fair value of a reporting unit with goodwill has been reduced below its carrying value. The impairment test requires allocating goodwill and other assets and liabilities to reporting units. The fair value of each reporting unit is determined and compared to the carrying value of the reporting unit. The fair value is calculated using the expected present value of future cash flows method. Significant assumptions used in the cash flow forecasts include future net operating margins, future volumes, discount rates and future capital requirements. If the fair value of the reporting unit is less than the carrying value, including goodwill, the excess of the book value over the fair value of goodwill is charged to net income as an impairment expense.
Amortization of intangible assets with definite lives is calculated using the straight-line method, which is reflective of the benefit pattern in which the estimated economic benefit is expected to be received over the estimated useful life of the intangible asset. Intangible assets subject to amortization are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of the intangible asset may not be recoverable. If the sum of the expected undiscounted future cash flows related to the asset is less than the carrying amount of the asset, an impairment loss is recognized based on the fair value of the asset. As of March 31, 2020, the Company’s goodwill was fully impaired. See Note 4—Clearwater Facility Idling and Note 5—Goodwill and Intangibles.
The Company periodically retires treasury shares acquired through share repurchases and returns those shares to the status of
authorized but unissued. When treasury shares are retired, the Company’s policy is to allocate the excess of the repurchase price over the par value of shares acquired first, to additional paid-in capital, and then to accumulated earnings. The portion allocable to additional paid-in capital is determined by applying a percentage, determined by dividing the number of shares to be retired by the number of shares outstanding, to the balance of additional paid-in capital as of retirement.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef